Eligibility RestrictionsNone.Cannot be self-funded unless participating in an exchange program pursuant to a formal written agreement between educational institutions or governmental offices.
On-Campus EmploymentAvailable up to 20 hours per week when school is in session and 40 hours per week during annual school holidays.Same as F-1.
Off-Campus Employment

Yes: Can be authorized for unforeseen financial hardship, Curricular Practical Training, or Pre- and Post-completion Optional Practical Training

Yes: Can be authorized for unforeseen financial hardship or Academic Training.

Practical/Academic Training Types

1) Curricular Practical Training (CPT).

2) Optional pre- or post-completion Practical Training (OPT).

Optional or Required Academic Training may take place before or after graduation
Time Limits for Practical/AcademicTraining

Curricular: None, although if you use more than 12 months of full-time CPT, you lose your eligibility for any OPT.

Optional (Pre- and Post-completion, combined): 12 months maximum for each higher degree earned.

Possible "Cap Gap" extension.

One-time extension of 24 months is available to certain STEM degree recipients.

Note: In general, the period of Academic Training may not exceed 18 months or the amount of time spent in the academic program, whichever is less.

Non-degree Graduate Students: 24 months maximum, including the academic program itself.

Degree: Pre-doctoral, 18 months maximum Post-doctoral, 36 months maximum (for post-doctoral research only).

Part-time Academic Training counts the same as Full-time Academic Training.

Requirement of Job Offer for Practical/Academic Training

Curricular: Yes

Pre-completion Optional: Recommended

Optional: No

Pre-Completion: Yes

Post-completion: Yes. Must have job offer within 30 days of completion of studies and you must apply before you complete your program as well.

Authorization from USCIS for Practical/Academic Training

Curricular: Not required. Authorization is obtained from Duke Visa Services advisor.

Pre- and Post-completion Optional: Required before student may begin work. Authorization takes 3-4 monnth.

None required. Authorization is obtained from Duke Visa Services advisor.
Possibility of Changing StatusYes, fairly easily.It depends. May be problematic for students subject to the 2-year home residency requirement.
Work Authorization For SpouseNone possible.Yes, with evidence that salary is not needed to fund stay, and it requires USCIS approval.
Enrollment for SpouseCan enroll part-time in degree programs.Can enroll for credit bearing courses.
Insurance Requirement per Visa StatusNone per visa category. Although the University requires all students to carry insurance, this is not a federal requirement, nor does it apply to spouses.Yes, for J-1 students and all dependents. Willful failure to maintain adequate health insurance as defined by federal regulations will result in the student's termination from the J-1 program, thus also terminating his/her J-1 status.
Permission to Stay in U.S. after Completion of Studies60 days granted automatically.30 days granted automatically.