Comparison of F-1 and J-1 Visa Types
|Eligibility Restrictions||None.||Cannot be self-funded unless participating in an exchange program pursuant to a formal written agreement between educational institutions or governmental offices.|
|On-Campus Employment||Available up to 20 hours per week when school is in session and 40 hours per week during annual school holidays.||Same as F-1.|
Yes: Can be authorized for unforeseen financial hardship, Curricular Practical Training, or Pre- and Post-completion Optional Practical Training
Yes: Can be authorized for unforeseen financial hardship or Academic Training.
|Practical/Academic Training Types||
1) Curricular Practical Training (CPT).
|Optional or Required Academic Training may take place before or after graduation|
|Time Limits for Practical/AcademicTraining||
Curricular: None, although if you use more than 12 months of full-time CPT, you lose your eligibility for any OPT.
Possible "Cap Gap" extension.
One-time extension of 24 months is available to certain STEM degree recipients.
Note: In general, the period of Academic Training may not exceed 18 months or the amount of time spent in the academic program, whichever is less.
Non-degree Graduate Students: 24 months maximum, including the academic program itself.
Degree: Pre-doctoral, 18 months maximum Post-doctoral, 36 months maximum (for post-doctoral research only).
Part-time Academic Training counts the same as Full-time Academic Training.
|Requirement of Job Offer for Practical/Academic Training||
|Authorization from USCIS for Practical/Academic Training||
Curricular: Not required. Authorization is obtained from Duke Visa Services advisor.
|None required. Authorization is obtained from Duke Visa Services advisor.|
|Possibility of Changing Status||Yes, fairly easily.||It depends. May be problematic for students subject to the 2-year home residency requirement.|
|Work Authorization For Spouse||None possible.||Yes, with evidence that salary is not needed to fund stay, and it requires USCIS approval.|
|Enrollment for Spouse||Can enroll part-time in degree programs.||Can enroll for credit bearing courses.|
|Insurance Requirement per Visa Status||None per visa category. Although the University requires all students to carry insurance, this is not a federal requirement, nor does it apply to spouses.||Yes, for J-1 students and all dependents. Willful failure to maintain adequate health insurance as defined by federal regulations will result in the student's termination from the J-1 program, thus also terminating his/her J-1 status.|
|Permission to Stay in U.S. after Completion of Studies||60 days granted automatically.||30 days granted automatically.|